Now showing items 1-20 of 67

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      Challenging inequities in health : from ethics to action : summary 

      Evans, Timothy; Whitehead, Margaret; Wirth, Meg; Epstein, Helen; McNees, Pat; The Rockefeller Foundation; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Oxford University Press, New York, 2001)

      Challenging Inequities in Health, was conceived as a response to the following: 1. Concerns about widening “health gaps” both between and within countries; 2. A disproportionate research focus on inequalities in health in the “North” to the relative neglect of the “South”; and 3. Inadequate analytic tools and pragmatic policies to redress health inequities. Through a collective effort of researchers and practitioners called the Global Health Equity Initiative (GHEI), a set of in-depth country studies and conceptual analyses on health equity ...
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      Poverty, equity, human rights and health 

      Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia (The World Health Organization, 2003)

      Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions’ work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely ...
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      Social determinants of health inequalities 

      Marmot, Michael (The Lancet, 2005)

      The gross inequalities in health that we see within and between countries present a challenge to the world. That there should be a spread of life expectancy of 48 years among countries and 20 years or more within countries is not inevitable. A burgeoning volume of research identifies social factors at the root of much of these inequalities in health. Social determinants are relevant to communicable and non-communicable disease alike. Health status, therefore, should be of concern to policy makers in every sector, not solely those involved in ...
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      Human rights and asian values 

      Sen, Amartya (1997)

      In 1776, just when the Declaration of Independence was being adopted in this country, Thomas Paine complained, in Common Sense, that Asia had “long expelled” freedom. In this lament, Paine saw Asia in company with much of the rest of the world (America, he hoped, would be different). Singapore warned that “universal recognition of the ideal of human rights can be harmful if universalism is used to deny or mask the reality of diversity.” The Chinese delegation played a leading role in emphasizing regional differences and in making sure that the ...
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      Why health equity? 

      Sen, Amartya (2001)
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      Health inequalities: critical perspectives 

      Smith, Katherine E.; Bambra, Clare; Hill, Sarah E. (Oxford University Press, 2016)

      This section provides a brief summary of the main ways in which health in-equalities are conceptualized, particularly in terms of the indicators used to stratify health. It is by no means a comprehensive account but rather considers the ways in which researchers focusing on the UK have tended to conceptualize health inequalities over the past 30 years and some of the key chalenges to these approaches (critiques which are developed later in this book).
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      A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health 

      World Health Organization (World Health Organization, 2010)

      Complexity defines health. Now, more than ever, in the age of globalization, is this so. The Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) was set up by the World Health Organization (WHO) to get to the heart of this complexity. They were tasked with summarizing the evidence on how the structure of societies, through myriad social interactions, norms and institutions, are affecting population health, and what governments and public health can do about it. To guide the Commission in its mammoth task, the WHO Secretariat conducted a review ...
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      The political origins of health inequity: prospects for change 

      Ottersen, Ole Petter; Dasgupta, Jashodhara; Blouin, Chantal; Buss, Paulo; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Frenk, Julio; Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko; Gawanas, Bience P.; Giacaman, Rita; Gyapong, John; Leaning, Jennifer; Marmot, Michael; McNeill, Desmond; Mongella, Gertrude I.; Moyo, Nkosana; Møgedal, Sigrun; Ntsaluba, Ayanda; Ooms, Gorik; Bjertness, Espen; Lie, Ann Louise; Moon, Suerie; Roalkvam, Sidsel; Sandberg, Kristin I.; Scheel, Inger B. (The Lancet, 2014-02-11)

      Despite large gains in health over the past few decades, the distribution of health risks worldwide remains extremely and unacceptably uneven. Although the health sector has a crucial role in addressing health inequalities, its eff orts often come into confl ict with powerful global actors in pursuit of other interests such as protection of national security, safeguarding of sovereignty, or economic goals. This is the starting point of The Lancet–University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health. With globalisation, health inequity ...
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      World Development Report 2006: Equity and Development 

      World Bank Publications (World Bank Publications, 2005)

      The World Development Report 2006: Equity and Opportunitypresents a social development strategy organized around the themes of social inclusion, cohesion, and accountability. It examines equality of opportunities--a potentially important factor affecting both the workings of the investment environment and the empowerment of the poor--by building on and extending existing accountability frameworks presented in the 2005Report.
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      Combating poverty and inequality: structural change, social policy and politics 

      Bangura, Yusuf (United Nations Research Institute for Social Development, 2010)

      Poverty reduction is a central feature of the international development agenda and contemporary poverty reduction strategies increasingly focus on “targeting the poor”, yet poverty and inequality remain intractable foes. Combating Poverty and Inequality argues that this is because many current approaches to reducing poverty and inequality fail to consider key institutional, policy and political dimensions that may be both causes of poverty and inequality, and obstacles to their reduction. Moreover, when a substantial proportion of a country’s ...
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      Child Poverty and Inequality: New Perspectives 

      Ortiz, Isabel; Moreira Daniels, Louise; Engilbertsdóttir, Solrun (2012)

      The 21st century starts with vast inequalities for children in terms of income, access to food, water, health, education, housing, or employment for their families. Half of the world’s children are below the poverty line of $2 a day and suffer from multiple deprivations and violations to basic human rights. More than 22,000 children die each day, and most of their deaths are preventable. This volume presents some of the critical acknowledged voices to move a necessary agenda forward. It explains multidimensional poverty measurements, describes ...
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      10 best resources on ... health equity 

      Gwatkin, D. R (Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 2007)

      An astute bureaucratic pundit named Rufus Miles once observed that ‘where you stand depends on where you sit’ (Miles 1978). This ‘Miles Law’ deserves to be kept centrally in mind when considering not only traditional bureaucratic behaviour, but also health equity; for one's judgment about what's ‘best’ in the health equity area is unavoidably shaped by his/her institutional experience, background and interests.Rather than challenge such an unfortunately well-established reality, better for an author to admit at the outset just where (s)he has ...
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      Regional strategy on health system strengthening and primary health care 

      Unknown author (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2010)
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      Equality of What? 

      Sen, Amartya (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 1979)

      Well-being is not just a question of the wealth or pleasure that a person has; it is a question of how people manage to live their lives and the ability they have to do certain things that are important to them. This was the argument put forward by Professor Amartya Sen in 1979. In his seminal Tanner Lecture – ‘Equality of What?’, Sen unites economics and philosophy to explore how a person’s well-being might best be measured. It was the first in a series of writings in which he developed his capability approach. This focuses on the actual capability ...
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      From income inequality to economic inequality. 

      Sen, Amartya (Southern Economic Journal, 1997)

      Focus must be shifted from income inequality to economic inequality because of the presence of causal influences on individual well-being and freedom that are economic in nature but cannot be expounded by simple statistics of incomes and commodity holdings. Attention must be given to heterogeneous magnitudes. Moreover, there is a need for the derivation of partial orderings based on explicit or implicit public acceptance.
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      Piketty’s Inequality Story in Six Charts 

      Cassidy, John (The New Yorker, 2014)
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      The Social Determinants of Health: Coming of Age 

      Braveman, Paula; Egerter, Susan; Williams, David R. (Annual Review of Public Health, 2011-04-21)

      In the United States, awareness is increasing that medical care alone cannot adequately improve health overall or reduce health disparities without also addressing where and how people live. A critical mass of relevant knowledge has accumulated, documenting associations, exploring pathways and biological mechanisms, and providing a previously unavailable scientific foundation for appreciating the role of social factors in health. We review current knowledge about health effects of social (including economic) factors, knowledge gaps, and research ...
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      Social Determinants and Their Unequal Distribution: Clarifying Policy Understandings 

      Graham, Hilary (The Milbank Quarterly, 2004-03)

      Public health policy in older industrialized societies is being reconfigured to improve population health and to address inequalities in the social distribution of health. The concept of social determinants is central to these policies, with tackling the social influences on health seen as a way to reduce health inequalities. But the social factors promoting and undermining the health of individuals and populations should not be confused with the social processes underlying their unequal distribution. This distinction is important because, despite ...
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      Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure? 

      Murray, C J L; Gakidou, E E; Frenk, J (Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1999)

      Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons Ð between and within countries, and over time Ð of health inequalities, and perhaps more ...
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      Socioeconomic Status and Health: Mediating and Moderating Factors 

      Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E. (Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2013-03-28)

      Health disparities (differences in health by socioeconomic groups) are a pressing issue in our society. This article provides an overview of a multilevel approach that seeks to understand the mechanisms underlying health disparities by considering factors at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels. In addition, we describe an approach to connecting these factors to various levels of biological processes (systemic inflammation, cellular processes, and genomic pathways) that drive disease pathophysiology. In the second half of the article, ...